ID 37 -
Pdf: various food(s)/food constituent(s) that are referring to children’s development
- Ryboflawina przyczynia się do prawidłowego metabolizmu żelaza w organizmie
- zdrowego poziomu żelaza
- Transport oraz metabolizm żelaza
1. Charakterystyka żywności / składnika
The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is riboflavin (vitamin B2), which is a well recognised nutrient and is measurable in foods by established methods.
Riboflavin occurs naturally in foods and is authorised for addition to foods (Annex I of the Regulation (EC) No 1925/20066 and Annex I of Directive 2002/46/EC7). This evaluation applies to riboflavin naturally present in foods and those forms authorised for addition to foods (Annex II of the Regulation (EC) No 1925/2006 and Annex II of Directive 2002/46/EC).
The Panel considers that the food constituent, riboflavin, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised.
2.2. Udział w prawidłowym metabolizmie żelaza (ID 30, 37)
The claimed effects are “transport and metabolism of iron” and “healthy iron status”. The Panel assumes that the target population is the general population.
The Panel considers that contribution to normal metabolism of iron is a beneficial physiological effect.
3. Naukowe uzasadnienia wpływu na zdrowie człowieka -
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a water-soluble, yellow, fluorescent compound, chemically specified as a 7,8-dimethyl-10-(1'-D-ribityl)-isoalloxazine. The vitamin is a precursor of certain essential coenzymes such as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In these coenzyme forms riboflavin functions as a catalyst for oxidation and reduction reactions and electron transport. Riboflavin is thus involved in a wide variety of metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates (IoM, 1998; SCF, 2000; Powers, 2003).
Riboflavin deficiency usually occurs in conjunction with other nutritional deficiencies. Early signs of riboflavin deficiency are soreness and burning of the lips, mouth, and tongue; burning and itching of the eyes; photophobia; and a loss of visual acuity. The most common signs are pallor and maceration of the mucosa at the angles of the mouth (angular stomatitis) and vermilion surfaces of the lips (cheilosis), eventually replaced by superficial linear fissures. The fissures can become infected with Candida albicans, causing grayish white lesions (perlèche). The tongue may appear magenta. Seborrheic dermatitis develops, usually affecting the nasolabial folds, ears, eyelids, and scrotum or labia majora. These areas become red, scaly, and greasy. Rarely, neovascularisation and keratitis of the cornea can also occur, causing lacrimation and photophobia (Bates, 2005; Bender, 2002). Deficiency symptoms also include normochromic, normocytic anaemia associated with pure erythrocyte cytoplasia of the bone marrow (IoM, 1998).
3.2. Udział w prawidłowym metabolizmie żelaza (ID 30, 37)
The evidence provided by consensus opinions/reports from authoritative bodies and reviews shows that there is consensus on the role of riboflavin in the metabolism of iron (JHCI, 2003; Bates, 2005; SCF, 2000; IoM, 1998; Bender, 2002).
Iron metabolism is impaired in riboflavin deficiency. The utilisation of iron reserves from the intracellular protein, ferritin, requires riboflavin. Animal studies show that riboflavin deficiency increases the rate of gastrointestinal iron loss (Powers, 2003). Riboflavin is required for haemoglobin synthesis (Bates, 2005).
The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of riboflavin and contribution to normal metabolism of iron.
4.2. Udział w prawidłowym metabolizmie żelaza (ID 30, 37)
The Panel considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Riboflavin contributes to the normal metabolism of iron in the body”.
5. Warunki i możliwe ograniczenia stosowania oświadczenia
The Panel considers that in order to bear the claims a food should be at least a source of riboflavin as per Annex to Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Such amounts can be easily consumed as part of a balanced diet. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) have not been established for riboflavin in children, adolescents and adults (SCF, 2000).
Warunki i możliwe ograniczenia stosowania oświadczenia
Source of 15% of RDA per 100g.